Hinduism is among the oldest religion of world that almost started around 2500 bc during early Vedic civilization or Indus valley civilization. During this period, people instead of individually worshiping god, started forming groups. They started accumulating wealth in forms of wheat,rice, grains and animals like cows and horses. This is the start of materialism in India. They started attracted towards wealth and lost their earlier glory of individualism. Caste in Indian society appeared during this period of early Vedic civilization.
The age of Buddha i.e 6th century BC to 3rd century BC is know as period of achievement in India. In the beginning of 6th century BC Varna system transformed into caste system. During this time nearly 62 religion appeared in India, of which 2 are prominent i.e Buddhism and Jaininsm.
Gautam Buddha originally Siddhartha was born at Lumbini in Nepal in the year of 563 BC. He was born in sakya kshatriya clan to Suddodhana, a king of Nepal and his mother was Mahamaya who belongs to kosala state. Gautam Buddha often regarded as shakyamuni. As he was born in a rich family he has all types of luxury available that time and never craved for anything. But soon Siddhartha realised that this is not the answer and nothing materialistic could fulfill his soul. Matter of fact he was married to Yasodhara and had a son named Rahul with her. Gautam Buddha also had a horse named kanthak.
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There are 4 events in Gautam Buddha’s life that changed his life totally. One day he was going with his charioteer channa through his kingdom when he witnessed four scenes that changed his heart. He encountered old age person,a sick person, diseased person and atlast deceased person. At the age of 29, he left his house with his horse Kanthak.
After leaving house he met two person known as his gurus- Alara kalma and Udraka ramaputra from whom he learned all techniques of meditation. When Siddhartha reached Bodhgaya, he penenced for 6 years on the bank of river Niranjan under peepal tree. There he got enlightened. Getting enlightened means he got knowledge about life and death. From there onwards he was known as “GAUTAM BUDDHA“. After his enlightenment he reached Sarnath in deer Park where he gave his first sermon known as “ DHARAMCHAKKA PARIVARTAN” which means turning off wheel of law. After that Gautam Buddha travelled a lot and Buddhism became one of the biggest relegion in India. At kushinagar in Uttar Pradesh, Gautam Buddha died after eating sukkamadhava( pork) given by his disciple Cunda.
TEACHINGS OF GAUTAM BUDDHA:
Main teachings of Gautam Buddha include four Nobel truth that are realistic in life even today. This makes Buddhism different from Hinduism and any other relegion on Earth.
– His First truth is DUKKHA. This means that sorrow exists and every human being should accept it. No one can escape it.
– Second Noble truth is TRISHNA. This means that there is cause behind every DUKKHA and that is to have lust for anything. Lust causes sorrow.
– Third Noble truth is DUKKHA NIGRODHA. This signifies that all DUKKHA (sorrows) can be solved.
– In the fourth truth Gautam Buddha explained that all DUKKHA can be solved by following ASTANGIKAMARGA which means middle path. He wanted people to live a life of balance. He told them to avoid both extremes of neither too much of self denial and nor life of comfort and luxury. Gautam Buddha established Sangha monastery which was nowhere related to religion during his lifetime. Sangha was basically a collection of followers of Gautam Buddha. Sangha has two types of followers:-
Bhikshu- who left their family life and totally adopted ascetic life.
Upasaka- these are the followers who are allowed to have family life
The importance of Buddhism in India is way it told people about life. He never showed any miracle, chams and spell to people. He asked them to be scientific in nature. He abandoned caste system. Because of his teachings and his life, Gautam Buddha is known as social reformer in history not a religious reformer.
Eventually in history Buddhism vanished from Indian subcontinent and came out to became main religions of developed countries like Japan, China, Cambodia, Nepal etc