Besides being former CMs, his parents have also been Leaders of Opposition.He was elected to the Bihar Legislative Assembly from the Raghopur constituency as a member of the Rashtriya Janta Dal in 2015 .He studied up to ninth grade and failed in class 10 board examination, and then dropped out of school without completing his primary education, to pursue his career in cricket which he has been criticized for by opponents. He served as the deputy Chief Minister for the state of Bihar between Nov 2015 and July 2017. His elder brother Tej Pratap Yadav was also a minister in the Bihar government.
Prior to his entry into politics, Yadav was an amateur cricketer as middle-order batsman in one Ranji trophy match and two limited over games for Jharkhand. He was also a part of the Delhi Daredevils for its 2008, 2009, 2011 and 2012 Indian Premier League seasons.
The Central Bureau of Investigation registered a case of corruption against Tejashwi Yadav, his father Lalu Prasad Yadav, his brother Tej Pratap Yadav, his mother Rabri Devi, and several other members of the family on July 5, 2017. On July 27, the Enforcement Directorate registered another criminal case under the Prevention of Money Laundering Act 2002 .